It is enlightening to try and define terms properly when trying to understand foundations of a scientific domain. In the case of the learning phenomenon, the distinction between deduction and induction is a crucial one.
Deductive reaonsoning consists in combining logical statements according to certain agreed upon rules in order to obtain new statements. This is how mathematicians prove theorems from axioms. Proving a theorem is nothing but combining a small set of axioms with certain rules. Of course, this does not mean proving a theorem is a simple task, but it could theoretically be automated.
Inductive reasoning consists in constructing the axioms from the observation of supposed consequences of these axioms. This is what scientists like physicists for example do: observing natural phenomena, they postulate the laws of Nature.
Both deduction and induction have limitations. One limitation of deduction is exemplified by Gödel's theorem which essentially states that for a rich enough set of axioms, one can produce statements that can be neither proved nor disproved.
Induction on the other hand is limited in that it is impossible to prove that an inductive statement is correct. At most can one empirically observe that the deductions that can be made from this statement are not in contradiction with experiments. But one can never be sure that no future observation will contradict the statement.